ETF’s are investment fund that holds several investments like stocks and bonds. they are owned by investors and managed by a professional money manager. ETF’s trade on the stock exchange and can be sold short or margined as well as you can trade in futures and options.
Buying ETF’s is considered a low-cost way to invest, there are many ETFs to chose from for specific industries and even bonds. ETF’s are easy to buy and sell and the risk level is dependent on the ETF you invest in.
If the ETF you buy invests in bonds you may receive interest distributions. if it is invested in stocks you may get paid dividend distributions, or if there are capital gains earned you will get paid from the ETF. When you get paid distributions from an ETF it will sit in you account as cash until you want to invest it.
You will also be taxed on any distributions you receive or any capital gains you make form an ETF. If it is in a RRSP or RRIF you won’t pay the tax until you redeem money, if it is in a TFSA you will not have to pay tax on it when you redeem it.
Stocks are shares of a company or corporation that are owned by an individual or a group. Companies will use stocks to raise capital by issuing shares in the company and allowing investors to purchase and become partial owners in the company. When buying stocks, the stockholder will receive dividends from
the company’s profits.
Stocks are bought and sold in a stock exchange, they are considered a risky investment as you are essentially relying on the performance of an individual company. If the company isn’t doing well and the stock prices goes down you will lose money, but if the company profits you could have high returns on your investment. Investing in an individual stock can be an emotional roller-coaster as things can change on daily basis.
Wondering how you can make money on stocks? You can profit from a stock by:
- Dividends – Not all companies will pay dividends to their shareholders but many will in order to draw people in to buying their stock. They are usually paid quarterly if the company profits.
- Capital Gains – This is the most common way for stockholders to make money, this is when the company grows so does the stock price and your shares are worth more money, if you sell them for more than you paid for them the difference is referred to as a capital gain.
A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that collects money from investors to purchase funds such as stocks and/or bonds.
A mutual fund can be a collection of a variety of different investments or it can focus on specific countries or types of investments, such as stocks or bonds.
As an investor buying a mutual fund you will be buying units or shares of the fund and you will be pooling your money with other investors. More shares are generated as more people invest into the mutual fund.
Buying Mutual funds is less risky than buying a stock in an individual company since a mutual fund has several stocks in its “basket” of stocks. So, if one company is not performing you have other stocks from other companies in the fund to rely on, so you will not lose your entire investment as long as they are doing well.
There are three ways you can make money from Mutual Funds:
- When income is earned from stock dividends and/or Interest is earned on bonds the fund will pay out almost all the income it earns over the year to fund owners
- If the fund sells any of its securities at an increased price and makes a profit in most cases it will be distributed to the investors
- If the fund manager does not sell the fund holdings when they have increased in price you can opt to sell your mutual fund shares for profit.
A bond is a debt or loan form to a company or government by an investor.
It is a written and signed document with promise for the corporation or government to pay a certain sum of money on a specific date to the investor.
Companies or governments use bonds to:
- Raise money
- Finance projects or activities
- Finance existing debt
- Maintain ongoing operations of the company
An investor will loan money to a Corporate or Government entity, which will borrow the funds for a defined period at a fixed or variable interest rate. An owner of a bond is referred to as a debt holder or creditors.
The most common types of bonds are:
- Municipal bonds – issued by an local government or territory and is typically used to finance public projects such as schools and roads.
- Corporate bond – issued by a corporation to raise money to finance a variety of things such as maintaining ongoing operations or paying off debt.
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